Brazilian corn has two harvests per year. The main harvest is during the rainy season and a second, "dry cultivation" harvest follows during the dry season. In the South the main harvest is in late August; while in the Southeast and Center-West, it happens in October and November and in the Northeast, by year end. The second harvest is in Paraná, São Paulo and in the Center-West, in February and March.
Grain production in the Black Sea region is determined by three principal players: Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan. (Though Kazakhstan is a landlocked country, up until now, most of its grain was exported through Black Sea ports). Grain production in these three countries (as well as exports) is practically stable. In 2013-2014, the three nations produced 38.6 million metric tons (mmt) of corn (1.5 billion bushels). Total grain production, including barley and wheat, was 151 mmt. There has been a shift in corn’s share from 10% to 25%. Barley, as the coarse grain, has become less and less important. It is difficult to differentiate the grades of wheat (milling or feed) since the standards in the former USSR states are different from the ones used in Western countries. It is typical for governments in the years of poor wheat crop or low quality to manipulate the figures. Ukrainian corn production for the 2014-2015 marketing year was projected to fall to about 25 mmt, down from 26 mmt the previous year.
Last year, 46% of Ukrainian corn was exported to the European Union (EU). Another 14% of the crop went to Egypt and 11% went to South Korea. The remaining major markets were Japan (7%), Iran (6%), Israel (3%), Tunisia (2%), China (2%), and Syria (1%). About 9% of Ukrainian corn went to other destinations. In 2013, Ukraine began exporting corn to China – 519 thousand metric tons (tmt). Ukraine remained one of the world’s largest exporters. Last year, the U.S. had 36% of world trade, Brazil had 17%, Ukraine had 16%, Argentina had 14%, and Russia had 3%. Remaining export nations accounted for another 14%.
- GMO corn
- Moisture maximum 14%
- Foreign matter maximum 1.5%
- Broken kernels maximum 3%
- Aflatoxine maximum 20PPB
- Damaged kernels maximum 5% of which maximum 1% heat damaged and/or germinating
- Goods free from alive insects
- Free from poisonous seeds/husks
- Non GMO corn
Test weight: 69.00 KG/HL minimum
Moisture: 14.50% maximum
Broken kernels: 5.00% maximum
Admixture/Foreign material: maximum 1.5%
Total damaged kernels: 5.00% maximum (including heat damaged kernels 0.2% maximum)
Aflatoxin: 20 ppb maximum Vomitoxin (Don): 1 ppm maximum
Vomitoxin (Don): 1 ppm maximum
Zearalenone: 100 ppb maximum
Malathion: 2 ppm maximum